Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Antihyperglycemic and pancreatoprotective effects of butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea) aqueous extract in hyperglycemic mice


Background: Diabetes mellitus has become a global concern with cases that increase every year and contribute to various organ damage. Previous research shows that the butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea) has the potential to lower blood glucose level and protect the pancreas through its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects.

Methods: An experimental analytic study was conducted using 15 mice which were divided into 5 groups, N (normal), HG (hyperglycemic without CTE), HG+MET (hyperglycemic + metformin), HG+CTE300 (hyperglycemic + CTE300mg/kgBB), and HG+CTE500 (hyperglycemic + CTE500mg/kgBB). CTE administration was carried out for 2 weeks in groups HG+CTE300 and HG+CTE500 which were then examined for blood glucose level and histological features of pancreatic β cells preparation with hematoxylin-eosin staining.

Results: The results of the data analysis showed that there was a significant difference in mean blood glucose level between the HG group and the treatment group with CTE administration (HG+CTE300 and HG+CTE500) ((MD: 53.67 95%; p=0.001) and (MD: 57.67 95%; p=0.001) respectively). In addition, a significant difference was found in the average number of pancreatic β cells per area between the HG group and the treatment group given CTE 500 mg/kg BW (MD: -8.83; p=0.012). There was no significant difference between the mean blood glucose and the number of pancreatic β cells per area between the groups with CTE compared to the metformin group.

Conclusion: Aqueous extract of butterfly pea flower (Clitoria teratea) has potential effects on lowering blood glucose levels and improving pancreatic β cell features in hyperglycemic mice.


  1. Abdul M, Khan B, Hashim MJ, King JK, Govender RD, Mustafa H, et al. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes – Global burden of disease and forecasted trends. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2020;10:107–11.
  2. Hedeager Momsen A-M, Høtoft D, Ørtenblad L, Friis Lauszus F, Krogh RHA, Lynggaard V, et al. Diabetes prevention interventions for women after gestational diabetes mellitus: an overview of reviews. Endocrinol diabetes Metab. 2021;4(3):e00230.
  3. Cloete L. Diabetes mellitus: an overview of the types, symptoms, complications and management. Nurs Stand. 2022;37(1):61–6.
  4. Tan SY, Mei Wong JL, Sim YJ, Wong SS, Mohamed Elhassan SA, Tan SH, et al. Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: A review on current treatment approach and gene therapy as potential intervention. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev. 2019;13(1):364–72. Available from:
  5. International Diabetes Federation. IDF diabetes atlas [Internet]. 10th edn. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation; 2021. 141 p. Available from:
  6. Banday MZ, Sameer AS, Nissar S. Pathophysiology of diabetes: An overview. Avicenna J Med. 2020;10(04):174–88.
  7. Wihandani DM, Purwanta MLA, Mulyani WRW, Putra IWAS, Supadmanaba IGP. New-onset diabetes in COVID-19: The molecular pathogenesis. BioMedicine. 2023;13(1):3–12.
  8. Maratni NPT, Saraswati MR, Dewi NNA, Yasa IWPS, Eka Widyadharma IP, Putra IBK, et al. Association of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism with lipid profile and ischemic stroke risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. J Nutr Metab. 2021;2021:5527736.
  9. Wihandani DM, Suastika K, Agus Bagiada IN, Malik SG. Polymorphisms of aldose reductase (ALR2) regulatory gene are risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients in Bali, Indonesia. Open Ophthalmol J. 2018;12:281–8.
  10. Saeedi P, Salpea P, Karuranga S, Petersohn I, Malanda B, Gregg EW, et al. Mortality attributable to diabetes in 20–79 years old adults, 2019 estimates: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 9th edition. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020;162:108086. Available from:
  11. Einarson TR, Acs A, Ludwig C, Panton UH. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: A systematic literature review of scientific evidence from across the world in 2007-2017. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2018;17(1):1–19. Available from:
  12. Khan S, Hussain T, Salahuddin N, Mehreen S. Risk factors of end stage renal disease in Peshawar, Pakistan: Odds ratio analysis. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2016;4(3):381–7.
  13. Chang C-S, Tsai P-J, Sung J-M, Chen J-Y, Ho L-C, Pandya K, et al. Diuretics prevent thiazolidinedione-induced cardiac hypertrophy without compromising insulin-sensitizing effects in mice. Am J Pathol. 2014;184(2):442–53.
  14. Loke YK, Singh S, Furberg CD. Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. C Can Med Assoc J = J l’Association medicale Can. 2009;180(1):32–9.
  15. Unnikrishnan AG, Kalra S, Purandare V, Vasnawala H. Genital infections with sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: occurrence and management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018;22(6):837–42.
  16. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Hua CK, Mun CS, Jing JK, Kong L, et al. An update on natural compounds in the remedy of diabetes mellitus: A systematic review. J Tradit Complement Med. 2018;8(3):361–76. Available from:
  17. Pham TN, Lam TD, Nguyen MT, Le XT, Vo DVN, Toan TQ, et al. Effect of various factors on extraction efficiency of total anthocyanins from Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L. Flowers) in Southern Vietnam. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 2019;544(1).
  18. Gowd V, Jia Z, Chen W. Anthocyanins as promising molecules and dietary bioactive components against diabetes – A review of recent advances. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2017;68:1–13. Available from:
  19. Ahmad AN, Abdullah Lim S, Navaranjan N. Development of sago (Metroxylon sagu)-based colorimetric indicator incorporated with butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) anthocyanin for intelligent food packaging. J Food Saf. 2020;40(4).
  20. Arifin WN, Zahiruddin WM. Sample size calculation in animal studies using resource equation approach. Malaysian J Med Sci. 2017;24(5):101–5.
  21. Alley DE, Chang VW. Metabolic syndrome and weight gain in adulthood. Journals Gerontol - Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65(1):111–7.
  22. Sasmana IGAP, Rahadi PNK, Devy AAT, Dewi PAS, Supadmanaba IGP, Wihandani DM. Apoliprotein C-III ( Apo C-III ) inhibitors effect of antisense oligonucleotides in the management of dyslipidemia. Indones J Biomed Sci. 2023;17(1):51–6.
  23. Han TS, Lean ME. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. JRSM Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;5:2048004016633371.
  24. Wu T, Jiang Z, Yin J, Long H, Zheng X. Anti-obesity effects of artificial planting blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) anthocyanin in high-fat diet-treated mice. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016;67(3):257–64.
  25. Yildiz E, Guldas M, Ellergezen P, Acar AG, Gurduz O. Obesity-associated Pathways of Anthocyanins. Food Sci Technol. 2020;2061:1–13.
  26. Park S, Kang S, Jeong DY, Jeong SY, Park JJ, Yun HS. Cyanidin and malvidin in aqueous extracts of black carrots fermented with Aspergillus oryzae prevent the impairment of energy, lipid and glucose metabolism in estrogen-deficient rats by AMPK activation. Genes Nutr. 2015;10(2).
  27. Bhosale U, Zambare M, Somani R, Talpate K. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. AYU (An Int Q J Res Ayurveda). 2013;34(4):433.
  28. Sasmana IGAP, Kusuma IKWA, Dhananjaya IGAD, Devy AAT, Wihandani DM. Pengaruh ekstrak aqueous Clitoria ternatea terhadap kerusakan histologi otak dan gangguan memori pada tikus wistar terinduksi diet tinggi lemak. 2023;12(3):78–83.
  29. Indrakusuma AABP, Wahyuni LPS, Wiguna IGWW, Devy AAT, Sasmana IGAP, Indrayani AW. Potential effect of secondary metabolites in Persea americana seeds as an a-amylase inhibitor on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Intisari Sains Medis. 2021;12(3):886.
  30. Scazzocchio B, Varì R, Filesi C, D’Archivio M, Santangelo C, Giovannini C, et al. Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside and protocatechuic acid exert insulin-like effects by upregulating PPARγ activity in human omental adipocytes. Diabetes. 2011;60(9):2234–44.
  31. Widowati W, Darsono L, Lucianus J, Setiabudi E, Susang Obeng S, Stefani S, et al. Butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea L.) extract displayed antidiabetic effect through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, lower hepatic GSK-3β, and pancreatic glycogen on Diabetes Mellitus and dyslipidemia rat. J King Saud Univ - Sci. 2023;35(4).
  32. Hong SH, Heo JI, Kim JH, Kwon SO, Yeo KM, Bakowska-Barczak AM, et al. Antidiabetic and beta cell-protection activities of purple corn anthocyanins. Biomol Ther. 2013;21(4):284–9.
  33. Moein S, Moein M, Javid H. Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase of anthocyanin isolated from Berberis integerrima bunge fruits: a model of antidiabetic compounds. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med. 2022;2022.
  34. Kato CG, De Almeida Gonçalves G, Peralta RA, Seixas FAV, De Sá-Nakanishi AB, Bracht L, et al. Inhibition of α -Amylases by Condensed and Hydrolysable Tannins: Focus on Kinetics and Hypoglycemic Actions. Enzyme Res. 2017;2017.
  35. Jeyaraj EJ, Lim YY, Choo WS. Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antibacterial activities of Clitoria ternatea flower extracts and anthocyanin-rich fraction. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):14890.
  36. Rapisarda P, Amenta M, Ballistreri G, Fabroni S, Timpanaro N. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of SRY-box transcription factor 2 (SOX2) overexpression in central nervous system tumor: a meta-analysis. Molecules. 2022;27(24).
  37. Goh SE, Kwong PJ, Ng CL, Ng WJ, Ee KY. Antioxidant-rich Clitoria ternatea L. flower and its benefits in improving murine reproductive performance. Food Sci Technol. 2022;42:1–7.
  38. Abdel-Rahman MA, Mohammed AK, Ahmed SH, Binnaser YS, Abdel-Nabi IM. Antidiabetic effect of the scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus body extract using alloxan-induced diabetic mice model. J Taibah Univ Sci. 2019;13(1):504–13. Available from:
  39. Fu X, Wu Q, Wang J, Chen Y, Zhu G, Zhu Z. Spectral characteristic, storage stability and antioxidant properties of anthocyanin extracts from flowers of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea l.). Molecules. 2021;26(22).
  40. Sasmana IGAP, Wiranata S, Yogananda KC, Wihandani DM, Supadmanaba IGP. Clinicopathological and Prognostic Significance of SRY-Box Transcription Factor 2 ( SOX2 ) Overexpression in Central Nervous System Tumor : A Meta-Analysis. Bali Med J. 2023;12(2):1733–9.
  41. Asmat U, Abad K, Ismail K. Diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress: A concise review. Saudi Pharm J. 2016;24(5):547–53. Available from:
  42. Sadeva IGKA, Wulandari PA, Prasetyo AV, Wahyuntika LPN, Rahadi PNK, Sasmana IGAP, et al. Analysis of antiquorum-sensing and antibiofilm activity by pomelo peel extract (Citrus maxima) on multidrug-resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biomed. 2022;12(4):20–33.
  43. Minelko M, Gunawan AG, Ali S, Suwanto A, Yanti. Protein extracted from Clitoria ternatea modulates genes related to diabetes in vivo. Int Food Res J. 2020;27(4):610–7.
  44. Kang GG, Francis N, Hill R, Waters DLE, Blanchard CL, Santhakumar AB. Coloured rice phenolic extracts increase expression of genes associated with insulin secretion in rat pancreatic insulinoma β-cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(9).
  45. Verma PR, Itankar PR, Arora SK. Evaluation of antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and pancreatic regeneration, potential of aerial parts of Clitoria ternatea. Rev Bras Farmacogn. 2013;23(5):819–29.

How to Cite

Sasmana, I. G. A. P., Surudarma, I. W., Wiryanthini, I. A. D. ., & Sutadarma, I. W. G. . (2024). Antihyperglycemic and pancreatoprotective effects of butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea) aqueous extract in hyperglycemic mice. Intisari Sains Medis, 15(1), 86–91.




Search Panel

I Gede Aswin Parisya Sasmana
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

I Wayan Surudarma
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

Ida Ayu Dewi Wiryanthini
Google Scholar
ISM Journal

I Wayan Gede Sutadarma
Google Scholar
ISM Journal